Proofs and Research Resources regarding Nepal’s Kalapani, Limpiyadhura, Lipulekh

Here, we have put together research papers and articles into downloadable pdf files and website links from all across the internet, to provide a clearer idea about the ongoing border issue between Nepal and India to aid in a better analysis of the situation.

1. Nepal-India Boundary Issue: River Kali as International Boundary

Mangal Siddhi Manandhar, Ex Department Head, Central Department of Geography, T.U.

Hriday Lal Koirala, Central Department of Geography, T.U. Kirtipur, Kathmandu

(Source: Tribhuvan University Journal)

It is perhaps the most detailed yet easy to understand paper one can find on the internet about this issue. Manandhar and Koirala are both well-known names, researching the border issues for years. A thorough read of this single article is enough to understand the issue. This paper not only analyzes the situation but also proves with maps and official letters- how the area encroached by India in north-west Nepal rightly belongs to Nepal.


2. Evolution of cartographic aggression by India: A study of Limpiadhura to Lipulek

Jagat K. Bhusal, Professional Hydrologist (PEng) and Ex-Chairman of ETFC.

Published: March 2020

Source: The Geographical Journal of Nepal

This paper brings into light the evolution of India’s encroachment of the north-west border of Nepal. A little harder to understand for general readers, but it provides more in-depth analysis, with sufficient maps and explanations.


3. India and Nepal’s Kalapani border dispute: An explainer

Sohini Nayak, Junior Fellow at Observer Research Foundation (Kolkata, India)

Published: April 29, 2020

Source: Observer Research Foundation

This is a brief but highly researched article on the border dispute, which presents the current scenario, its causes, and its progression. Sohini Nayak, who is a Junior Fellow at Observer Research Foundation, Kolkata, urges that India should move beyond its insecurities with China and points out that both Governments must negotiate on upgrading their border management. This article is written with intense research and the endnotes in the article provide further resources.

4. Kalapani Belongs to Nepal: The North-Western Border of Nepal

Buddhi  Narayan  Shrestha

Bhumichitra Mapping Company- Kathmandu, Managing Director

No border research of Nepal is complete without reading the works of Buddhi Narayan Shrestha. Shrestha has dedicated long years to researching the borders of Nepal. He does not only research but has been regularly publishing it on his blog entitled ‘’. The article mentioned below is specifically related to the issue. The blog itself is full of articles written about the borders of Nepal and is highly recommended for anyone with a deep interest in this issue.


Further resources:

A. Border Disputes and Its Impact on Bilateral Relations: A Case of Nepal-India International Border Management

Toya Nath Baral, Former Director-General,

Survey Department, Government of Nepal

This paper is not specifically related to the ongoing border issue but is a research paper about the overall border of Nepal. It examines the historical events of the Nepal-India international boundary, analyzes the problems arising due to the open border system between the two countries, and also presents initiatives taken to resolve the border management issues.


B. Book: Atikramanko Chapetama Limpiyadhura-Lipulekh, by Ratan Bhandari

This book is a complete compilation of proofs, articles, resources, and documents about the Limpiyadhura-Lipulek border. It is not available online but can be easily obtained in Ratna Pustak Bhandar.






Watch the video explaining the Kalapani, Lipulek border dispute between Nepal and India

Kalapani, Lipulek border dispute with India Explained | 200 years history of Kalapani Encroachment